Examples of engineering problems to be analyzed:





Working Course Outline (November 1997)


0. Introduction

0.0 alpine ski competition - objective: optimize speed and line to minimize time to complete a course

0.1 ski racing: over 60mph on a narrow path down a mountain

0.2 energy conservation and ski racing


1. Mechanics of ski-snow interactions

1.1 what is snow, mechanical and chemical properties

1.2 skis (first look): basic geometry and base material

1.3 mechanics of sliding, heat, electricity...

1.4 machining snow and ice


2. Mechanical analysis of ski technique

2.0 mechanics of turning, skidding and carving

2.1 ski-snow interaction: weighting (forces and moments), edging

2.2 knees, hips, ankles, arms

2.3 coaching


3. Skis

3.0 a beam for transmitting loads to the snow

3.1 flex distribution, torsion, damping

3.2 measuring properties (ASTM, ISO), lab testing, on-slope testing


4. Boots and bindings

4.0 transmitting loads and stiffness testing

4.1 boots, the human-equipment interface

4.2 bindings, retention and release

4.3 binding tests (ASTM, ISO) (lab mechanical testing)


5. Ski injuries - epidemiology and mechanisms

5.1 historical trends and mechanisms

5.2 reduction of fractures

5.3 current problems: the knee

5.4 loss of control, inadvertent release and fall trajectories

5.5 trail design and collisions

5.6 litigation, the cost of injuries, equipment and trail design