Class Description

STEM is taught by Dr. Crowthers. In the first half of STEM, known as “STEM 1”, every student engages in a five-month long independent research project. In this class we learn practices that real scientists do during their research, such as grant writing, proposals, and project planning. We begin to develop our ideas through brainstorming, and later dive deeper through thorough research. After creating a solid foundation, we start testing and acquiring data. Finally, we neatly wrap up our hard work by using the technical writing skills we acquired, creating a professional product which we are proud of.



Graphical Abstract


Link to research proposal

Phrase 1

In future road networks most vehicles are predicted to run on electricity, which is produced in factories that create greenhouse gases. These are harmful to the environment, so it would be important to minimize energy consumption in electric vehicles.

Phrase 2

The goal of this project is to create a model for a centralized traffic system that synchronizes traffic signals with electric vehicles in order to minimize energy consumption.


Barth, & Boriboonsomsin, K. (2008). Real-World Carbon Dioxide Impacts of Traffic Congestion. Transportation Research Record, 2058(1), 163–171. https://doi.org/10.3141/2058-20

Boyles, S. D., N. E. Lownes, and A. Unnikrishnan. (2022) Transportation Network Analysis, Volume I, Version 0.90.

Carey, M., Srinivasan, A., 1994. Solving a class of network models for dynamic flow control. European Journal of Operational Research 75 (1), 151–170.

Downs, A. (2004, January 1). Traffic: Why It's Getting Worse, What Government Can Do. Brookings. Retrieved November 8, 2022, from https://www.brookings.edu/research/traffic-why-its-getting-worse-what-government-can-do/

Guo, Kong, Y., Li, Z., Huang, W., Cao, J., & Wei, Y. (2019). A model and genetic algorithm for area-wide intersection signal optimization under user equilibrium traffic. Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, 155, 92–104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matcom.2017.12.003

Li, Mirchandani, P., & Zhou, X. (2015). Solving simultaneous route guidance and traffic signal optimization problem using space-phase-time hypernetwork. Transportation Research. Part B: Methodological, 81, 103–130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trb.2015.08.011

Practical Engineering. (2019). How Do Traffic Signals Work? YouTube. Retrieved September 18, 2022, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DP62ogEZgkI

Qadri, Gökçe, M. A., & Öner, E. (2020). State-of-art review of traffic signal control methods: challenges and opportunities. European Transport Research Review, 12(1), 1–23. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12544-020-00439-1

Retallack, & Ostendorf, B. (2019). Current Understanding of the Effects of Congestion on Traffic Accidents. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(18), 3400–. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16183400

Sanchez-Medina, Galan-Moreno, M. J., & Rubio-Royo, E. (2010). Traffic signal optimization in “La Almozara” district in saragossa under congestion conditions, using genetic algorithms, traffic microsimulation, and cluster computing. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 11(1), 132–141. https://doi.org/10.1109/TITS.2009.2034383

Wang, & Xu, Y. (2011). Estimating O-D travel time matrix by Google Maps API: implementation, advantages, and implications. Annals of GIS, 17(4), 199–209. https://doi.org/10.1080/19475683.2011.625977