BIRDS AT BROAD MEADOW BROOK

SOME DEFINITIONS

THE B.A.R.C.: The Broad Meadow Brook Avian Records Committee. A body of five monitors that reviews records of species new to the sanctuary or species that are rare on BMB.

BREEDING BIRD SURVEY: This is conducted on BMB traditionally during the second Saturday in June. Volunteers canvas the sanctuary and count all birds, many of whom can be assumed to be breeding.

BREEDING SPECIES: A species that has been found actually constructing or attending a nest and/or feeding young. . A suspected breeding species is one that has been found during the normal breeding season, perhaps acting territorial, but no nest or young have been found. Confirmed breeders include Black-Capped Chickadee, Mallard, Yellow Warbler, Common Yellowthroat, Field Sparrow, Brown-Headed Cowbird.

BROOD PARASITE: A species that lays its eggs in the nests of other species, usually to the ultimate detriment of that host species. The Brown Headed Cowbird, a notorious BROOD PARASITE is often heard and seen on the sanctuary in the spring and occasionally in the winter.

CHRISTMAS COUNT: This tradition started nearly a century ago. During a two week period at the end of December, birders count all species within a 15 mile diameter circle. There are Christmas Count Circles throughout Massachusetts, the United States, Canada and parts of Central and South America. During the WORCESTER CHRISTMAS COUNT (the first Saturday of the count period) volunteers thoroughly count all species on Broad Meadow Brook as part of the count. The compilation of all the sectors for the Worcester Christmas Count is held at Broad Meadow Brook.

DIURNAL SPECIES: A bird who spends most of its active hours during the daylight.

ESCAPED SPECIES: These are species which do not exist as wild birds anywhere near the sanctuary, but have been noted on the sanctuary none-the-less. They are presumed to be escaped from captivity. Budgerigar (from Australia) and Mandarin Duck (from China and Great Britain) have both been seen on Broad Meadow Brook..

"FLY OVERS" : Some species are only seen flying over Broad Meadow Brook. These would include Common Loon, Double-Crested Cormorant, Snow Goose, Turkey Vulture.

MIGRANT: A species whose population wholly or partially leaves the area. Some species at Broad Meadow Brook are MIGRANT BREEDERS. These are species who breed here but leave Broad Meadow Brook after the young have fledged. Some MIGRANT BREEDERS are short distance migrants, like the Field Sparrow or Gray Catbird. Other MIGRANT BREEDERS are long distance migrants and may migrate to as far away as the Caribbean and Central and South America. Examples of long distance MIGRANT BREEDERS would be Scarlet Tanager, Yellow Warbler, Eastern Kingbird and Eastern Wood Peewee.

Some species are only known as MIGRANTS and pass through Broad Meadow Brook to and from their (mostly northern) breeding grounds. Example: Blackpoll Warbler, Olive-Sided Flycatcher, Bay-Breasted Warbler. Some MIGRANTS may breed elsewhere in Worcester County. This would include species like Black-Throated Green Warbler, Black-Throated Blue Warbler, Magnolia Warbler.

NOCTURNAL SPECIES: A species who spends most of its active hours at night. Broad Meadow Brook nocturnal species include Eastern Screech Owl, Common Nighthawk and Woodcock.

PERMANENT RESIDENT: A species that appears in Broad Meadow Brook throughout the year. In some cases part of the population may leave at certain times of the year or the resident population may be augmented by individuals that do not breed here. Not all PERMANENT RESIDENTS are confirmed breeders on the sanctuary. Examples of PERMANENT RESIDENT species would include: Black-Capped Chickadee, White-Breasted Nuthatch, American Crow, Downy Woodpecker.

RARITY: A species whose occurrence on the sanctuary is atypical, unexpected and does not occur every year. Some species may be rare in their occurrence on the sanctuary, but more common in occurrence in the rest of Worcester County. The Hooded Warbler (2 sanctuary records) is rare in Worcester County, but more common in its occurrence on the coast. The Red-Shouldered Hawk is rare over Broad Meadow Brook, but breeds in several locations in Worcester County. The rarity of a species is often a matter of local definition (place, county, state or region).

WINTER VISITOR: A species which occurs only in the winter time on the sanctuary. This would include the American Tree Sparrow, Northern Shrike and Common Redpoll.