Scientific English as a Foreign Language
Answers to Lesson of November 2, 1998
Connecting words, or conjuncts, control the flow of a manuscript. They join sentences or parts of sentences in a logical, chronological, or other way. I wrote one lesson on this subject already; see this page. Because it is a difficult subject, I shall devote the next two lessons to it. We can think about conjuncts by the grammatical roles that they play:
Enumerative- In the first place, the economy is recovering, and secondly unemployment is beginning to decline. (for one thing, for another thing, next, then, finally)
Additive- She has the ability, the experience, and above all the courage to tackle the problem.
(furthermore, moreover, what is more, similarly, in addition)
He was late for work, he quarrelled with a colleague, and he lost his wallet; all in all, it was a bad day.
(altogether, overall, therefore, in sum, in summary, in conclusion)
There was one snag; namely, the weather.
(that is, that is to say, i.e., for example, e.g., in other words, specifically)
I got there very late, so I missed most of the fun.
(therefore, as a result, accordingly, in consequence of, of course)
Try these. More than one word may be correct.
1. I think she's just the right person for the job. She has the degree,
______ the experience.
moreover, what is more, in addition, furthermore, above all
2. The sample will soon melt. _________ it will flow out of the sample
of course, therefore, as a result, accordingly, in consequence of
3. There is just one small problem. ________ I want to use the instrument tomorrow.
Namely, that is, that is to say, for example, in other words, specifically
4. ___________, we have shown that these methods have much in common.
In summary, in conclusion, overall, altogether
5. I don't want to work on the paper today. _______, I have a class
and ________ I'm very tired.
Firstly, first of all, for one thing
secondly, for another thing, also
The book "A Student's Grammar of the English Language," by Greenbaum and Quirk, Addison Wesley Longman Limited, 1990, was very useful to this lesson.
Back to the index page.
Created November 1, 1998, by Nancy Burnham and Fred Hutson.