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PH 597A, Atomic Force Microscopy

Spring 2011
Prof NA Burnham, Physics Department
nab@wpi.edu , X-5365, OH 219
www.wpi.edu\~nab\PH597A.html


Atomic force microscopes (AFMs) are instruments that allow three-dimensional imaging of surfaces with nanometer resolution. Also used to determine chemical and mechanical properties of surfaces, they and their cousins, collectively called scanning probe microscopes, are the principal enabling technologies in the fields of nanoscience and engineering. Nanoscience and engineering encompass many different disciplines, e.g. physics, chemistry, materials science, electrical engineering, and biology. Their common thread is the mutual focus on understanding, designing, and controlling processes and devices at the nanoscale.

If you complete this course, you will understand the functional principles of AFMs, be able to run one, and interpret the data that you collect. The course has two main parts. The first half of the term emphasizes instrumentation, the second half interpretation. In general, each fortnight there are three one-hour lectures, one one-hour computer lab, and one two-hour instrument lab. A bachelor's degree in science or engineering is sufficient background. Previous students have indicated that the course was not only helpful to their research, but also in finding employment. You must pass the course in order to use my AFMs in your future research. Auditors are welcome to sit in the lectures. However, they may not partake in the labs due to the high cost of supplies, the limited number of TAs, and licensing issues.

The course objectives are:


AFM | Grading | Syllabus | Calendar | Objectives | Materials | Prelabs and labs | HW and presentation | Communication and dates


Grading

Here is the grading scheme:
 
Type of Assignment
# x % (Min.Words)
Comments
Pts.
PL, prelabs
6 x 1 % (100)
REQUIRED, no lab time until PL done to acceptable level

IL, instrument lab reports
3 x 3 % (300)
2 x 6 % (600)
1 x 12 % (1200)
REQUIRED, missed lab = -2n % of final grade, where n is the number of missed labs. Late reports -1 pt/day, each lab report must be done to an acceptable level

20
EX, exams 2 x 10 % REQUIRED, missed exam = -1n % of final grade, where n is the number of missed exams
50
PP/PA/PR, project proposal, abstract, presentation 1 %, 4 % (400),
5 %
late work not accepted. PP and PA must be done in order to participate in PR.
5
Lecture
5 %
late work not accepted
5
CL, computer lab reports 7 x 2 % (200) late work not accepted
5
HW, homework 6 x 2 % (200) late work not accepted 20


Here is how to interpret the grading scale:

Rating 5-pt scale
Suggests competence
2
Demonstrates competence
3
Suggests mastery
4
Demonstrates mastery
5


The grading is done globally, meaning that your grade depends on the overall quality of your work. Assignments shorter than the minimum word count will be returned ungraded.  Electronic submissions will suffer a 20 % grade penalty.  There are four aspects of the lab reports that are graded on the five-point scale; this accounts for the twenty-point total.  Similarly, there will be ten questions on each exam and four tasks for each homework assignment.

Only eight times this semester is your attendance essential –  the six instrument labs and the two exams. Attendance is not otherwise controlled, although be forewarned that there are topics that will be covered in class for which there is no available reading or notes. Important announcements are usually made at the beginning of class, so it is useful to be on time. If your final grade is near the border between two grades, e.g. between A and B, then your participation and enthusiasm will decide which grade you ultimately receive. The grading is structured such that if you do well on the instrument labs and exams, you still might pass the course if you neglect the computer labs, presentation, and homework. But it is unlikely that you will do well on the exams if you ignore such a large fraction of the work. The Teaching Assistants grade your prelabs. They also grade the instrument lab reports, which are then checked by me. I grade your other work. I am not sympathetic to point grubbing, but I certainly would like to see blatant errors on the part of the graders (myself included). Nominally, 80 % or above is an A, 70 % or above B, and 60 % or above C. These lower borderlines for grades might initially seem encouraging. Yet I shall be most pleased if you come to think of me as a demanding grader. After the first exam, I shall give you an indication of how well you are doing.


Syllabus

IL = Instrument Lab, CL = Computer Lab.

PART I – INSTRUMENTATION

Unit 1, Fundamentals of imaging
Class 1:  Introduction
Class 2:  SPM and AFM instrumentation
IL1:   Laboratory procedures
IL2:  Acquiring an image
CL1:  Image processing
ML1:  Static spring constant
Unit 2, Difficulties of imaging
Class 3:  Feedback and artifacts
Class 4:  Perturbations and noise
Class 5:  Fast fourier transforms

IL3:  Optimizing an image and lateral force microscopy
CL2:  Feedback and noise
CL3:  Fast fourier transforms
ML2:  Tip imaging
Unit 3, Other SPMs and operational modes
Class 6:  Scanning tunneling microscopy
Class 7:  Lateral force microscopy
Class 8:  Operational modes
IL3:  Optimizing an image and lateral force microscopy
Unit 4, Calibration
Class 9:  Probe calibration
Class 10:  Scanner calibration
IL4:  Probe and scanner calibration
ML3:  Dynamic spring constant
Class 15:  Exam 1 on instrumentation



PART II – INTERPRETATION
Unit 5, Force-curve mechanics

Class 11:  Potentials, forces, and stiffnesses
Class 12:  Force curves
Class 13:  Mechanical properties
IL5:   Acquiring and processing force curves
CL4:   Potentials, forces, and stiffnesses
CL5:  Surface forces and cantilever stiffness
ML4:  Cantilever instabilities
ML5:  Force curve of an infinitely stiff sample

Unit 6, Tip-sample interactions

Class 14:  Surface forces
Class 16:  Contact mechanics
Class 17:  Molecular dynamics
IL6:  Contact mechanics
CL6:  Contact mechanics
CL7:  Molecular dynamics
ML6:  Force curve of an unknown sample


Unit 7,
A glimpse at current research
Class 18:  Student presentations on current research
Class 19:  Student presentations on current research
Class 20: 
Student presentations on current research
Class 21:  Exam 2 on interpretation



The above is summarized by this calendar.

PL = Prelab, HW = Homework, IL = Instrument Lab, CL = Computer Lab, EX = Exam, PP = Presentation Proposal, PA = Presentation Abstract, PR = Presentation, DDD = Drop-Dead Day. Bold indicates that the assignment is required and must be done to an acceptable level. Underlined means that the assignment is required. Italics show the six instrument labs and seven computer labs. An asterix (*) means an extended class. The text colors distinguish among the seven units referred to above. The pink backgrounds correspond to days that we do not meet. The yellow backgrounds are topics for which pairs of students may do the lecture (worth 5 %).  For the lab schedule, please click here.


Week of Monday
Thursday
Week of
Monday
Thursday
Instrument Lab
OH 009
% this
fortnight




9 January

Introduction
--

IL1. Laboratory procedures
PL1

16 January MLK Day, no class
Instrumentation
--
23 January
Feedback and artifacts
--
CL1. Image processing
HW1
IL1. Lab pro
IL2. Acquiring
PL1,2
3 %
30 January
Noise and perturbations
IL1
Roy, Xu
FFTs
CL1
Lackner, Stanton
6 February LFM
--
Kaltofen
CL2. Feedback and noise
HW2
IL2. Acquiring
IL3. Optimizing, LFM
PL2,3
8 %
13 February STM
IL2
Hou, Yao
Other modes
CL2
Burnham
20 February Probe calibration
--
Cirka, Tao
CL3. FFTs
HW3
IL3. Optimizing, LFM
IL4. Calibration
PL3,4
8 %
27 February Scanner calibration
IL3
Zeineldin, Yu
UFk
CL3
6 MRCH
SPRNG BRK!
13 March
Force curves
--
CL4. UFk
HW4
IL4. Calibration
IL5. Force curves
PL4,5
8 %
20 March Mechanical properties
IL4
EX1
CL4
27 March Surface forces
PP
CL5. Stiffness
HW5
IL5. Force curves
 
IL6. Contact mechanics
PL5,6
22 %
3 April Contact mechanics
IL5
CL6. Contact mechanics
CL5
10 April Molecular dynamics
PA
CL7. Molecular dynamics
CL6
IL6. Contact mechanics
PL6
15 %
17 April Patriot's Day, no class
Student talks*
PR, HW6
24 April Student talks* 
PR, IL6
Student talks* 
PR, CL7
If unavoidable, make-up labs
--
21 %
1 May EX2
--
DDD






10 %

Learning objectives

What follows are the objectives for the seven units of the course. The first exam covers Units 1-4, the second Units 5-7. The keywords used below are defined in the next section.

Unit 1, Fundamentals of imaging (IWGN, IntroNST, IntroAFM, IL1, IL2, CL1, PG Chap.1&5; SPMLab, UGI Chap.1-3)

1a.  Define the acronyms SPM, SXM, STM, AFM, SFM, LFM, and FFM.  
1b.  Know in which environments an SPM can operate.
1c.  Sketch diagrams showing the difference between constant-height and constant-strength modes.
1d.  State the advantages and disadvantages of AFM and the ways in which AFM can be used.
1e.  Distinguish between the "top-down" and "bottom-up" approaches to nanotechnology.
1f.  Know the effects of the basic image-processing options.
1g.  Describe how to acquire and process a contact-mode constant-normal-force AFM image.

Unit 2, Difficulties of imaging  (PG Chap. 4, DRAFTSects2.2-3, IL3, CL2, CL3; UGI Chap. 4, FB)

2a. Describe how a feedback circuit works and how you can control it.
2b. Know how to optimize an image.
2c. Know how to test for artifacts.  
2d. Identify common artifacts and be able to rectify them.
2e. Differentiate between a magnitude spectrum and a power spectrum.
2f.  Describe mean value, mean-square value, and root-mean-square value.
2g. Identify the four most important types of noise and specify their characteristics.
2h. Know how SPMs are built, situated, and protected so as to limit perturbations.
2i.  Explain the principles of fourier theory.
2j.  Distinguish between fourier threshold filtering and fourier frequency filtering.
2k. Be able to improve SPM images using fourier threshold filtering.

Unit 3, Other SPMs and operational modes (HLI, HLII, PG Ch.1, IL3, STM, FFM; UGII Chs.1&3, DRAFTChap7) 

3a.  Know the basic physical principles behind STM.
3b.  Be able to explain why STM is so sensitive to distance and condition of the surface.
3c.  Know how static and sliding friction are determined from a friction loop and the equations that define them.
3d. Given the topography and friction coefficients of a hypothetical surface, sketch the expected friction loop.
3e.  Describe the contact, noncontact, and intermittent-contact modes and know why they are used.
3f.  List the advantages and disadvantges of the contact, noncontact, and intermittent-contact modes.

Unit 4, Calibration (DRAFTSect4.1, PG Chap.2, IL4, kc_Exercise; StiffCal, UGII Chap. 6)

4a. Distinguish among the parts of a probe assembly.
4b. Understand why certain materials and geometries are used to construct probes.
4c. Discuss the phrases “range versus resolution” and “robustness versus resolution.”
4d. Describe the various ways in which tips and cantilevers are calibrated.
4e.  Describe the problems of piezoelectric scanners and how to correct for them.
4f.  Describe how to calibrate a scanner.

Unit 5, Force-curve mechanics (DRAFTChap5, IL5, CL4, CL5, FC_Exercise; MPM, UGII Chap. 4)

5a. Know the basic physical principles behind force curves — the relationships among potentials, forces, and concavity.
5b. Be able to determine if an equilibrium is stable, unstable, or neutral, both mathematically and by inspecting a potential diagram.
5c. Define monostability and bistability.
5d. Explain the origin of cantilever instabilities.
5e. Define a force curve.
5f.  Understand how raw force-curve data is converted to processed data
5g. Discuss the limitations of weak cantilevers for force-curve aquisition.
5h. List and describe common problems with force curves.
5i.  Compare and contrast elasticity, plasticity, and anelasticity.
5j.  Sketch and discuss a stress-strain curve; define stress, strain, and elastic modulus.
5k. Define Poisson's ratio, reduced modulus, and indentation modulus.
5l.  Define reduced radius, contact radius, and work of adhesion.

Unit 6, Tip-sample interactions (DRAFTSect6.1, SFA, IL5, IL6, CL6, CL7, ku_Exercise; StiffCalII, MDI, MDII)

6a.  Distinguish between attraction and adhesion
6b.  Describe the origin of van der Waals forces.
6c.  Understand how the van der Waals potential takes different functional forms for different geometries.
6d.  Be able to apply Eqs. 6.2 to specific substances.
6e.  Interpret the features of a force curve due to meniscus and capillary formation.
6f.  Calculate the work done in elongating a capillary, either with constant volume or with constant cross section.
6g.  Sketch how the van der Waals and meniscus-capillary forces manifest themselves in force curves taken with weak and stiff cantilevers.
6h.  Add to the van der Waals sketch for the previous objective the force values for unstable equilibria.
6i.  State the functional dependence on delta of a flat, cone, and sphere indenting a smooth horizontal surface.
6j.  Know and be able to manipulate the Hertz equations for K, P, a, ki, and delta.
6k.  Describe how the Hertz equations change when surface forces are present.
6l.  Sketch how force, contact radius, interaction stiffness, and pressure change depending on K, R, and w.
6m.  Determine whether or not an atom should be treated as a particle or a wave.
6n.  Make a sketch showing how atoms move in a Lennard-Jones potential depending on temperature, the depth of the potential, and the equilibrium distance.
6o.  Describe how molecular dynamics simulations work.
6p.  List what predictions molecular dynamics can make that continuum mechanics cannot.

Unit 7, A glimpse at current research (student presentations)

7a. Give some examples of current research topics.
7b. Know how SPMs have contributed to this research.

Study materials

Some of the study materials are protected; you must be on campus or connected via the Virtual Private Network in order to download them. The keywords for the materials are:
Reading materials
Lab and homework materials
AFM.ShownInLecture, Things I've been showing you in class

AFM.DRAFT, Draft of AFM book
FB, Feedback System Response in a Scanning Tunneling Microscope
FFM, Friction Force Microscopy
HLI, Looking at Atoms
HLII, Stroking Molecules
IntroAFM, Poster introducing AFM
IntroNST, Poster introducing nanoscience and technology
IWGN, Nano brochure from IWGN
MDI, Molecular Dynamics I
MDII, Molecular Dynamics II
MPM, Mechanical Properties of Metals
PG, A Practical Guide to Scanning Probe Microscopy
SFA, Surface Forces and Adhesion
StiffCal, Stiffness calibration paper
StiffCalII, Another stiffness calibration paper
STM, Scanning Tunneling Microscopy
CLI, Computer Lab Instructions
Data Dlevers.pdf, Data sheet for stiff cantilevers
Data Grating, Data sheet for TGTcalibration grating
Data MPP31123, Data sheet for compliant cantilevers
EXP, Expectations of AFM Users
HW3, Homework 3
ICA, I.C.Adams manual *
ILI, Instrument Lab Instructions
ILR.doc, Template for Instrument Lab Reports (Word)
ILR.tex, Template for Instrument Lab Reports (LaTeX)

Lab5, Excel file for Lab 5 report
Lab6, Excel file for Lab 6 report
LP, Laboratory Procedures
MLI, Macro-Lab Instructions
ML1, Static spring-constant spreadsheet
No software for ML2
ML3, Dynamic spring-constant acquisition program
ML4, Cantilever-instabilities acquisition program
ML5&6, Force-curve acquisition program
SPMLab, Manual for V.5.01 *
UGI, User's Guide for the M5 Instrument, Part I (Chaps 1-4) *
UGII, User's Guide for the M5 Instrument, Part II (Chapter 4) *

* The asterix indicates that the document is long and might not be worth printing.
Should you need the complete references for these articles, please find them here .

Prelab assignments and labs

The six prelabs that are due at the beginning of your instrument labs are required before you may begin the lab. Find these assignments within the Instrument Lab Instructions. They must be done to an acceptable level (>= 3 out of 5 pts). Please give your prelab to the TA at the beginning of your instrument lab. Each prelab, graded out of five points, is worth 1 % of your final grade. The TAs have the right to penalize your prelab grade if you come to lab unprepared or if you are inattentive to laboratory procedures.

Between lab reports and prelabs, labs are worth 53 % of your final grade. You will work in teams of two on the instrument, but you will submit individual instrument lab reports. You will work individually on the computer labs and submit individual computer lab reports. All lab reports and prelabs are to be on paper; electronic versions will be accepted with a 20 % penalty. Instrument lab reports should use the template provided in the Study Materials section, and figures should be on separate sheets of paper, stapled to the back of the reports. Find out what to do in the Computer Lab Instructions and Instrument Lab Instructions respectively. 

I will answer questions concerning the self-paced computer labs during our regularly scheduled sessions. If you miss a session, your lab report will be expected to be of the same quality as if you had attended. It is also due at the regularly scheduled time. No late reports will be accepted. Any of the almost four-hundred public computers on campus offers the course software. You may also install it on up to two of your own computers, but you are not allowed to distribute it.

The first three instrument labs are for you to learn how to take a good image and are each worth 3 % of your final grade. The fourth concerns calibration, the fifth how to acquire and process a force curve. These are each worth 6 % of your final grade. After learning the basics in the first five labs, the capstone experience is the experiment in the sixth lab where you will take a high-quality image, then acquire and interpret a force curve after calibrating the probe's tip and spring constant. This last lab report is worth 12 % of your final grade. If you have a question about the labs as you write your reports, see me, or talk to the TA. He is Evan Anderson, evan09@wpi.edu, OH 114.  Evan will be in the lab, OH 009, on Mondays and Thursdays at 5:00 pm.

You must pass EACH of the six instrument labs in order to pass the course. If you have an important appointment or religious observance that conflicts with your regularly scheduled lab session, you may switch lab times with a classmate, but you must inform me by email at least a day in advance. If unavoidable, lab make-ups will be held the last full week of the term. Missing an instrument lab session costs you 2n % of your final grade, where n is the number of missed times. If you fail to comply with the laboratory procedures, you will not be permitted to use the lab; you will not pass the course. If you were able to perform the lab work on time but your lab report is tardy, a one-point penalty per business day (out of twenty points) will be enacted. This does not stop at zero! If, for example, you fail to turn in Lab 1 on time, and instead wait six weeks before submitting it, it is worth at most minus ten points. Instrument labs are an essential part of the course, and this grading scheme reflects their importance.

Homework, lecture, presentation proposal, presentation abstract, and presentation

A homework assignment consists of a reading summary, two problems, and a short laboratory exercise with a macroscopic cantilever. Each will be graded out of five points. Each homework assignment contributes 2 % to your final grade. The reading summaries should be at least 200 words in length. Add a question or comment about the material or a request for me to explain something in class. Please put your questions, comments, requests, and word count at the end of your summary. Although you submit it to me, it should be written for your own benefit, so that you can use it as a study aid while preparing for the exams. Use the learning objectives above to help you pick out the important points. An example reading summary (without a question, comment, or request) is given in the reading summary section of my PH 2202 course handout. For grading guidelines for the summaries, problems, and "macro-labs", see the grading guideline section of the same page. An addition to the guidelines is that a point will be deducted if there is no question, comment, or request at the end of the summary.

The presentation is a means for you to explore a subject that interests you. You will synthesize at least six related articles in cogent fashion for me and the rest of the class. For the presentation proposal, bring me hard copies of at least two related publications that interest you about modern materials, biophysics, or nanotechnology. One article must be from a 2010 or later peer-reviewed journal. (No web sites unless they are web versions of hard-copy journals. A good place to start is www.vjnano.org. Let us define peer-reviewed journals as those that appear in the Thomson ISI master journal list, although this definition is more convenient than accurate.) One article may be older and from a popular science source, such as Discovery Magazine or the New York Times. I want to ensure that the articles are appropriate for your talk. (Are they related to the course? Are they specific enough to summarize in a few minutes?)

The presentation abstract will reflect your understanding of the articles. It should be one page, between 400 and 600 words in length, and submitted on paper at the beginning of class on the due date. Refer to the articles (the original two, as well as at least four others) within the abstract and clip all of the articles to the back. The presentation is your verbal capsule thereof, where you will describe your articles in a short speech. Participation in the presentations is contingent upon timely submissions of a presentation proposal and an abstract.

The abstracts will be evaluated on their clarity, organization, and interest, as well as their spelling, grammar, referencing, and formatting. Just as in the abstracts for your lab reports, include content, motivation, methodology, important results, and implications of those results. The presentations will be evaluated on their timeliness, quality of the visuals, quality of the delivery, clarity, organization, and interest, and responses to questions.

Homework Assignment; see above for key-word links
HW1, Fundamentals 1. Reading summary of IWGN, brochure introducing nanoscience and technology
2. State in kilometers, microns, nanometers, Angstroms, and picometers how far it is from Olin Hall to where you live. 
3. Estimate the magnitude of the pressure between a coffee cup and a desk. Write the result with the correct SI unit for pressure. Estimate the magnitude of the pressure between an AFM tip and a sample if the cantilever has a spring constant of 1N/m, it is deflected by ten times the diameter of a hydrogen atom, and the contact area with the sample is a square nanometer.  What is the SI prefix for this power of ten?
4. ML1, static spring constant.

HW2, Difficulties

1. Reading summary of Sects. 2.2-3 on noise and FFTs of the AFM.DRAFT
2.
Problem 14, unit analysis
3. Problem 19, obtain Parseval's theorem

4.
ML2, tip imaging
HW3, Other SPMs
HW3
HW4, Calibration
1. Reading summary of Sect. 4.1 on probe design and calibration of the AFM.DRAFT
2. Problem 29,
influence of length of cantilever
3. Scanner sketching exercise. Sketch the equivalent of Figs 2-5, 2-7, 2-10, and 2-11 in PG, not for a square step, but for a square well.  There is a small mistake in Fig. 2-7. You should be able to puzzle out the mistake by comparing Figs. 2-6 and 2-7.
4.
ML4, cantilever instabilities

HW5, Force Curves
1. Reading summary of Sects. 5.1-2 on force-curve mechanics of the AFM.DRAFT
2.
Problem 48, potentials and equilibrium
3. Problem 56, sliding distance of the cantilever

4.
ML5, force curve of an infinitely stiff sample
HW6, Mechanics and Interactions
1. Reading summary of Sects. 5.3 and 6.1 on surface forces of the AFM.DRAFT
2.
Problem 63, plane-strain approximation
3. Problem 69, force and potential between polarizable atoms

4.
ML6, force curve of an unknown sample
Lecture
The lecture is meant to give you experience helping students learn a topic, as opposed to introducing them to a research area, as you will do for your research presentation.  To give you experience with a different medium, try using the chalkboard. (I anticipate that you will all use computer slides for your research presentation.)  If you feel much more comfortable with computer slides, that's fine, but please provide copies of the slides (two per page) that students can annotate.  I will provide each group of two students with an outline of the lecture as a starting point.  Please feel free to talk to me about the material ahead of time.
PP, Presentation Proposal For the research presentation proposal, bring me hard copies of at least two related publications that interest you about modern materials, biophysics, or nanotechnology. One article must be from a 2010 or later peer-reviewed journal. (No web sites unless they are web versions of hard-copy journals. A good place to start is www.vjnano.org. Let us define peer-reviewed journals as those that appear in the Thomson ISI master journal list, although this definition is more convenient than accurate.) One article may be older and from a popular science source, such as Discovery Magazine or the New York Times. I want to ensure that the articles are appropriate for your talk. (Are they related to the course? Are they specific enough to summarize in a few minutes?)
PA, Presentation Abstract The presentation abstract will reflect your understanding of the articles. It should be one page, between 400 and 600 words in length, and submitted on paper at the beginning of class on the due date. Refer to the articles (the original two, as well as at least four others) within the abstract and clip all of the articles to the back. The presentation is your verbal capsule thereof, where you will synthesize your articles in a short speech.
PR, Presentation Participation in the research presentations, during which you will describe your articles in a short verbal presentation, is contingent upon timely submissions of a presentation proposal and an abstract.
DDD, Drop-Dead Day
All IL and EX work must be submitted before 8:00 am on 5 May 2011 in order to be included in your final grade.

Communication, etc.

I assume that you read your email at least once each business day. You may assume the same for me. If you have computer or network problems, it is still your responsibility to keep up with course announcements. I also assume that you have read and understood everything in this document. If you need to talk to me, the best time is right after class. My email address is nab@wpi.edu , telephone 508-831-5365, fax 508-831-5886, office Olin Hall 219, mailbox near the Physics Department office, web address for this page www.wpi.edu/~nab/PH2510.html.

If you need course adaptations or accommodations because of a disability or if you have medical information to share with me, please see me. Students with disabilities are encouraged to contact the Disability Services Office (DSO) as soon as possible to ensure that such accommodations are implemented in a timely fashion. The DSO is located in Daniels Hall, (508) 831-5235.

Individual integrity is vital to the academic environment because education involves the search for and acquisition of knowledge and understanding, which are, in themselves, intangible. Evaluation of each student’s level of knowledge and understanding is a vital part of the teaching process, and requires tangible measures such as reports, examinations, and homework. Any act that interferes with the process of evaluation by misrepresentation of the relation between the work being evaluated (or the resulting evaluation) and the student’s actual state of knowledge is an act of academic dishonesty. The moral equivalent of academic dishonesty in larger society is treason.

Important times, places, and dates

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AFM | Grading | Syllabus | Calendar | Objectives | Materials | Prelabs and labs | HW and presentation | Communication and dates


  January 2011